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Ice Cream Science


This text will try to summarize ice cream science in the context of using the calculator. I will try to keep this simple and not go into too much depth. Ice cream is a very complex product and to be able to create your own recipes with the desired texture, hardness, sweetness etc. some basic knowledge of ice cream science is needed.

As you can see below this text is not finished! And until I get the time to write about all this I will give you some great links that covers everything you need to know. So….


Hello My Name Is Ice Cream by Dana Cree. I like this book and she has a good chapter introducing ice cream science. So, if you are a beginner this is a great place to start.

Ice Cream, 7th edition. More advanced book where you will find almost everything you need to know.


To comprehend the science of ice cream, it is crucial to familiarize oneself with some significant properties and terminologies. A well balanced ice cream has a ratio of key functional properties like Fat, Solids, Water, MSNF etc… These ratios are different for different types of ice cream. When you understand how these work and affect the ice cream you will be able to create ice creams with your preferred texture, consistency, sweetness etc.

  • MSNF
    Milk Solids Not Fat. This is the solids in dairy that is not fat, so it is basically the proteins from the milk and cream.
  • TSNF
    Total Solids Not Fat. This is all the solids in the recipe that is not fat. So all proteins and fiber etc that is not fat or water.
  • Total Solids
    Total Solids. This is everything in the recipe that is not water or alcohol.
  • PAC
    PAC stands for ‘Potere Anti Congelante’ can also be called AFP-‘Anti Freezing Power’ or FDPF-‘Freezing Point Depression Factor’
    In the calculator PAC is used.
    This is a measure of how much the freezing point of the water is depressed. What it means is that the water freezes at a lower temperature. Different sugars affect the freezing point the most and salt and alcohol even more. The higher the PAC the softer the ice cream.
  • POD
    POD ‘Potere Dolcificante’ is the relative sweetness of the ice cream. Another acronym is SP “Sweetening Power”.
    The POD tells you how sweet the ice cream is.

Components of ice cream

Ice cream consists of four basic components. Water, ice, solids and air.









How is ice cream made









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